JEDDAH: THERE space a couple of rulers in the world who have actually left indelible impressions in history. Caliph Umar bin Abdul Aziz tops the list. The is thought about one the the ideal rulers in Muslim history, 2nd only come the 4 rightly guided caliphs — Abu Bakr, Umar, uthman and Ali (RA). In fact, in part circles, that is affectionately described as the fifth and also the last caliph of Islam. The roman emperor, as soon as heard about his death, said: "A virtuous person has pass away... Ns am hardly surprised to check out an ascetic that renounced the world and give himself come the prayers of Allah. However I am certainly surprised in ~ a orang who had actually all the pleasures the the dunia at his feet and however he shut his eyes versus them and also lived a life the piety and also renunciation."Umar bin Abdul Aziz ruled together a caliph for only 30 months but during this short ketentuan he changed the world. His tenure was the brightest ketentuan in the 92-year history of the Umayyad Caliphate.He was the boy of Abdul Aziz bin Marwan, the governor of Egypt kapan his mother, Umm-i-Aasim to be the granddaughter of Caliph Umar Ibn Al Khattab. Umar bin Abdul Aziz to be born in 63 A.H. (682 A.D.) in Halwan, Egypt, however he got his education in Madinah indigenous his mother’s uncle, the commemorated scholar Abdullah Ibn Umar. He continued to be in Madinah it rotates his father’s fatality in 704 A.D., as soon as he was called by his uncle Caliph Abdul Malik and was married to his daughter Fatima. He was appointed governor of Madinah in 706 A.D. Doing well Caliph Waleed bin Abdul Malik.Umar remained governor the Madinah throughout the reigns the Caliph Walid and Caliph Suleiman. Yet when Suleiman dropped seriously ill, he want to appoint heir, as his sons dulu still minors. Reja ibn Haiwah, the adviser, proposed to him to appoint his cousin Umar bin Abdul Aziz together his successor. Suleiman embraced the suggestion. After gift nominated caliph, Umar addressed the setiap orang from the pulpit saying: “O people, I have actually been nominated her caliph regardless of my unwillingness and also without her consent. So di sini I am, I relieve you of your pledge (baiyat) the you have actually taken because that my allegiance. Selected whomsoever girlfriend find perfect as your caliph." people shouted: "O Umar, us have penuh faith in you and we want you as our caliph." Umar continued, “O people, follow me as long as i obey Allah; and also if i disobey Allah, you space not duty-bound to follow me."Umar was extremely pious and averse to worldly luxuries. He desired simplicity to extravagance. The deposited every assets and wealth meant for the judgment caliph into the Bait Al Maal. He also abandoned the imperial palace and preferred come live in a usually house. That wore rough clothes instead of imperial robes and also often went i could not recognize it in public like his good grandfather Caliph Umar ibn Al Khattab.After his appointment as caliph he discarded all the pompous appendages of princely life-servants, slaves, maids, horses, palaces, golden robes and real estates and also returned them come Bait Al Maal. He juga asked his mam Fatima to return the jewelry she had received from her father Caliph Abdul Malik. The faithful wife complied with his bidding and deposited all of it in the Bait Al Maal. Later, he gained his write-ups of high-end auctioned because that 23,000 dinars and also spent the amount because that charitable purposes." He never built a residence of his own. Allama Suyuti in his bersejarah work "Taarikh Al Khulafaa" records that Umar spent just two dirhams a day when he was caliph. He obtained lesser salary 보다 his subordinates. His exclusive properties surrendered an revenue of 50,000 dinars annually sebelum his nomination, however when he changed all his properties to the Bait Al Maal, his private revenue was lessened to 200 dinars per annum. This to be his properti when he was commanding the huge Caliphate native the boundaries of France in the barat to the boundaries of China in the East.Once his wife found him weeping after ~ prayers. She asked maafkan saya had happened. He replied: "I have been do the leader over the Muslims and also I was reasoning of the bad who room starving, and the noble who room destitute, and also the naked who are in distress, and the oppressed that space stricken, and also the stranger the is in prison, and also the venerable elder, and also him the hath a besar family and kecil means, and the favor of lock in countries of the earth and the remote provinces, and I felt the my Lord would certainly ask me about them on the day of Resurrection, and also I feared that no pertahanan would avail me (at the time), and I wept." that was very considerate come his subjects. His generous reforms and also leniency memerintah the orang to deposit anda taxes willingly. Ibn Kathir writes that many thanks to the revolutionary undertaken by Umar, the yearly revenue native Persia alone enhanced from 28 juta dirham come 124 juta dirham.He embarked on extensive publik works in Persia, Khorasan and utara Africa, consisting of the building of canals, roads, rest dwellings for travelers and also medical dispensaries. The an outcome was that during his short reign of two and fifty percent years, rakyat had ini adalah so prosperous and also contented the one mungkin hardly find a person who would certainly accept alms. Umar is credited with having actually ordered the first mengumpulkan of Hadith, in an resmi manner, fearing that some of it could be lost. Abu Bakr ibn Muhammad ibn Hazm and Ibn Shihab Al-Zuhri, were among itu who compiled Hadith at Umar’s behest. Adhering to the instance of the holy Prophet (peace be upon him), Umar sent emissaries come China and Tibet, inviting their rulers to adopt Islam. The was during the time the Umar that Islam took roots and also was accepted by a besar segment of the populace of Persia and also Egypt. Once the public official complained that since of conversions, the jizya profits of the state had actually experienced a steep decline, Umar wrote bagian belakang saying the “Holy Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) was sent as a prophet (to invite the rakyat to Islam) and not together a tax collector." he abolished residence tax, marital relationship tax, rubber stamp tax and also many other taxes together well. When numerous of his agents composed that his budget reforms in donate of new converts would diminish the Treasury, that replied, "Glad would certainly I be, through Allah, to check out everybody akan Muslim so that you and also I would have to till the soil with our own hands to earn a living." as soon as a Muslim murdered a non-Muslim that Hira. Caliph Umar, when informed of the event, bespeak the branch to execute justice in the case. The Muslim was surrendered to the hubungan of the murdered rakyat who eliminated him.The general princely class of that time mungkin not digest these plans of justice, simplicity and equality. A servant of the caliph was bribed to carry out the deadly toxicity to him. The caliph having felt the effect of the poison sent out for the slave and asked that why he had poisoned him. The slave replied that he was provided 1,000 dinars because that the job. The caliph telah mengambil the amount indigenous him and deposited that in Bait Al Maal. Freeing the servant he asked the to leave the ar immediately, lest anyone can kill him. This to be his terakhir deposit in the Bait Al-Maal for the welfare that Muslims.Umar died in Rajab 101 AH in ~ the period of 38 in a rented home at the place dubbed Dair Sim’aan near Homs. That was hidden in Dair Sim’aan top top a piece of soil he had purchased native a Christian. He apparently left behind only 17 dinars through a will that the end of this amount the rent of the home in which the died and also the price that the soil in which the was hidden would be paid.

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And also thus departed the an excellent soul indigenous the world. May Almighty Allah remainder his soul in peace and also award the the ideal place in Paradise.